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Inspection of Grey Cast Iron Products

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Third Party Inspection Agency

Inspection of Grey Cast Iron Products

During inspection of cast iron products, the inspector should have sufficient knowledge of casting of products/ components, the intended use of the products, its application, its defects, machinery used during manufacturing, measuring equipment, type of test to be performed during the inspection, properties of the product, Document verification etc.


Third party inspection agency in India

Third Party Inspection agency in India performing the Third Party Inspection services for casting products, they do the have the team of Inspection Engineers, must know at least following technical requirements as general before performing the Third-Party Inspection services on gray cast Iron products.   These are the minimum requirement every Inspection Engineer must know about Gray Cast Iron.  As per Casting products Inspection Experts view, the Few technical requirements are given below for reference. Which could help  Inspection Engineers for preparedness and development of QAP prior to perform the Inspection services.


What is gray cast iron?

Gray cast iron has the characteristic by its graphite microstructure which causes fractures of the material to have gray appearance, the happens due the availability of in the composition.

References used during the inspection can be Customer approved QAP, internal QAP, Engineering Drawings, IS Standards, ASTM Standard, ISO Standards, Engg. drawings.

Process performed on cast iron products – Machining, Drilling, assembly, cutting, welding, broaching, milling etc.


Application of cast iron ( But not Limited )– Automobile Machine body, engineering parts, Engine blocks, decorative items, electrical boxes gears, Structures, hydraulic components, pumps, linkages, stove spares, tractor parts, valves, truck parts, housings, weight & counters, pipes & tubes, cylinders.


Raw Material used in grey cast iron – there are various materials used in manufacturing grey cast iron products/ components such as pig iron, cast iron scrap, metallurgical coke, chemicals & additives.


Grades of Grey Cast iron – GF 150, FG 200, FG 220, FG 260, FG 300, FG 350, FG 400

The designations for the grey cast iron is given in ARE 4843.


Machinery Used during the manufacturing of cast iron products.

  • Foundry
  • Core box.
  • Pouring equipment.

Measuring equipment used for Inspection and Testing during manufacturing of cast iron products.

  • Microscope
  • Chemical analysis equipment
  • Metallurgical properties analysis equipment
  • Universal tensile testing machine
  • Brinell hardness testing machine.
  • Transverse testing machine
  • Dial Vernier caliper
  • Outside micrometer
  • Height Gauge
  • Profile Projector

Parameters to be inspected & tested during the inspection.

  • Chemical composition – Ref IS 210:2009
  • Workmanship & finish – Ref IS 210:2009 & IS 5519
  • Microstructure – Ref IS 210:2009, IS 7754
  • Freedom from defects – Ref IS 210:2009, IS 5139
  • Tensile testing – Ref IS 210:2009, IS 1608
  • Hardness test – Ref IS 210:2009, IS 1500
  • Transverse test – Ref IS 210:2009
  • Hydrostatic test. – Ref IS 210:2009.
  • Dimensional inspection.
  • NDT Test.

Heat Treatment shall be complying to IS 13655.

The most Common defects of Gray cast iron products which any inspector may come across the course of inspection.

  • Porosity
  • Blow holes
  • Hard spots
  • Cracks
  • Hot tears
  • Cold shuts
  • Distortion
  • Sand & slag inclusions.

Types of NDT tests can be performed on casting products,

  • Ultrasonic test.
  • Radiography test.
  • Dye penetration test
  • Magnetic tests,

Chemical test can comprise of the following elements,

  • Silicon
  • Manganese
  • Sulphur
  • Phosphorous

Note: The chemical composition may vary as per customer & suppliers need,

In case there is in repair in the casting through welding process it shall confirm to IS 5139.

Mechanical test requirements & observations shall confirm to Table-3 of IS 210.

In case the inspector is asked to draw a sample for physical testing from any independent lab The size of the test bars shall be diameter +2mm/- )& the length of the test bars shall be min 230mm.

 The properties of Grey Cast iron.

  • High Compressive strength
  • Tensile strength
  • Resistance to deformation
  • Low melting
  • Resistance to oxidation
  • Density
  • Yield strength
  • Melting point
  • Heat capacity.


Document review and verification during Third Party Inspection

  • There are various types of documents verified & reviewed.
  • Inspection offer letter
  • Material test report (Chemical/ Mechanical/ Microstructure/ Hardness)
  • Factory test report
  • Witness test reports.
  • QAP
  • Engineering Drawings,

Preparation of Third-Party Inspection Services for Gray Cast Iron Products

We are leading Third Party Inspection Agency in India, we do prepare the Third-Party Inspection Checklist, by taking the reference of relevant IS Codes / Specification / Client QAP/ Drawing / Specification inspection Instructs prior to perform the Inspection of Cast Iron Product.  Once Inspection Checklist is prepared – it will be approved by Clients prior the inspection. So that the output of Inspection results meets the clients’ expectations and the products inspected meets client’s requirement.

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